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The European XFEL will provide light sources (beamlines) for X-ray flashes with different properties.

When electron bunches are induced to follow a slalom course in the magnet arrangements—the so-called undulators—of the European XFEL, they emit flashes of X-ray radiation. The European XFEL will comprise different undulators, i.e. different light sources providing X-ray flashes with different properties.

The undulators are assembled from 5-metre-long segments aligned one behind the other with a distance of 1.1 metres between them. These gaps between the segments will be used to install elements for electron beam diagnostics and control.

The strength of the magnetic fields in the undulators can be varied—a higher magnetic field resulting in a wider slalom course and thus in X-ray radiation with a longer wavelength.

Undulators as planned in the Technical Note TN 2011-01
SASE 1 + 2 SASE 3
wavelengths 0.4 nm to below 0.05 nm 4.7 nm to 0.4 nm
photon energy 3 keV to over 25 keV 0.26 keV to 3 keV
instruments SPB/SFX, FXE (SASE 1)
magnetic length 175 m 105 m